Generic and adaptive Gamification
Gamification is a method in which game elements are applied within a non-game environment to deliver tasks in an appealing fashion. If appropriately designed, it is believed that gamification enhances user experience. Motivational psychology suggests that intrinsic motivation in a task (i.e. being motivated by internal factors; for example, if one believes performing the task is intrinsically a good thing) more effectively increases engagement and player performance than extrinsic motivations (motivation due to external factors like badges, fame and points). Intrinsic motivation leverages the player's mental state, aiming at amplifying their degree of enjoyment and immersion in an activity; while extrinsic motivation is guided by the desire to gain an external reward. This paper introduces the concept of Adaptive Gamification, that is, gamification achieved by leveraging the user's motivation. Adaptive Gamification personalises the experience based on the player's gameplay and preferences, which in turn is connected with the player's personality. A framework for Adaptive Gamification is presented and the state of the art in this area is reviewed.