Resilient Health Care as the basis for teaching patient safety – A Safety-II critique of the World Health Organisation patient safety curriculum
© 2019 Elsevier Ltd Resilient Health Care (RHC)is predicated on the idea that health care systems constantly adjust to changing circumstances. RHC has become increasingly popular as a new way to improve patient safety, but to date there is no agreed way of using RHC as the basis for teaching patient safety. A key resource for patient safety educators is the World Health Organisation (WHO)patient safety curriculum, released ten years ago. However, it is well established that patient safety thinking in healthcare has been driven largely by Safety-I principles, and this is reflected in the WHO curriculum. The aim of this paper is to review and to provide a critique of the WHO patient safety curriculum from a Safety-II perspective, in order to assess to what extent RHC principles are already incorporated, and to identify areas where RHC might make contributions to the WHO curriculum. Based on this analysis, we argue that RHC thinking could be added in modular fashion to the WHO curriculum, but that in the future a broader curriculum should be developed that integrates RHC thinking throughout.